''Any wanderer, absolutely foreign person, became '''', once it was warmed at the center. It was protected as native. The evil spirit did not dare to come nearer to fire, but fire was capable to clear something profaned.
Not deprived of wit and art taste, potters understood that the furnace revetted with patten tiles can become decoration of the dwelling. And still they understood that drawing on tiles has to, on the one hand blow the mind of the buyer the beauty and entertaining, and with another – to be
in back part a rumpa, i.e. a clay box for fastening of a tile to a wall. Pot tiles come from a layer of XIV-of the XVI centuries. They were formed on a potter's wheel; early (the XIV-XV centuries) – on manual, with considerable impurity of coarse-grained sand, late (XVI century) – on foot from clays of high quality without obviously rough inclusions in its structure.
Ranks of ''five'' could settle down in any sequence. But, most likely, in the center tiles with the coat of arms were located. Over them or under them, so that it was convenient to examine, tiles with pictures settled down. And on the top and at the very bottom there were ranks with a pattern from herbs and flowers.
That in no way it is impossible to belittle a role of decorative art, it in the history of art in general; about an esthetics of natural material, in particular, - about clay; about tile art, as the most interesting
Work on the diploma was conducted not only in libraries Kamensk-Ural and Yekaterinburg, but also in funds of the Ekaterinburg museum of local lore where sketches were executed, tiles which are stored there, and also in a workshop of the kataysky ceramist S. A. Gavrilov, the part of work is devoted to whose creativity.
The manufacturing techniques of box-shaped tiles of the XVI-XVII centuries are more difficult than the production technology of pot tiles and show the qualitative and new level of potter's craft of the pozdefeodalny period. The front plate of box-shaped tiles ottiskivatsya in the special forms made of a tree or clay (matrixes). On a matrix the ornament which then was transferred to a tile was cut out.
Undoubtedly, the most ancient ancestors of Slavs, as well as other primitive tribes, cooked food and were heated round usual fires. With transition to settled life and thorough dwellings fires moved under a roof and found a constant place in the house. So there were centers which are laid out by stones. However the efficiency of the center is not great: to support heat in the house, too much firewood is required. Therefore eventually the opened center started turning into the furnace. The furnace heated the house better and more long kept heat and concerning the fire was where it is safer.
''Force and richness of art of the whole people are based on style and richness of spiritual life of the people and, eventually, by force and richness of folk art. The people – the collective artist. It also allocates from the environment throughout history of arts of art figures which are strong communication with the people, its surprising and inner world, esthetic tastes and ideals' '.1
It was necessary to build much, quickly, beautifully. The brick came into force. During that time also there were clay plates with the imprinted pattern repeating an ornament and images of a white stone carving. These plates did not become covered the field yet. They are known as the first facing ceramic materials transformed later to red tiles.
As a result of heat treatment the ceramics gains fire resistance, chemical firmness and some other the properties defining its wide use. ''Possibly, anything so perfectly does not testify about past, as ceramics. clay even if and in crocks, remains almost eternally''.